Seven Churches

It is also known as “The Seven Churches of Revelation or The Seven Churches of Apocalypse.” It refers to the Roman province of Asia not the whole content. These seven churches were built by Roman Empire and they are mentioned with the names in Roman times. All seven churches are in Turkey now.  The first seven churches of Christianity in Western Anatolia (Asia Minor) was established. These churches;                                              Ephesus ( Church of Mary)                                                                                                         Pergamon,                                                                                                                                                    Sardis,                                                                                                                                                    Smyrna,                                                                                                                                                Thyateira,                                                                                                                                             Philadelphia,                                                                                                                                         Laodicea.

EPHESUS

It is an ancient Ionian city. Small Menderes, where it flows into the Aegean Sea, an ancient port city was founded. Today the sea is full, the city was inland ruins. However, among the ruins of the city fathers of Ephesus harbor and the pier is still selected. Gulf coast of Ephesus was founded in the age of the most convenient Gulf of the Aegean Sea and therefore, the busiest harbor. Passing from Sardes until Babylon and Egypt to reach through the famous “King’s Road” was beginning from Ephesus. Great Menderes (Maiandros) and Gediz (Hermos) valleys of the rivers in the middle of the roads leading into Anatolia.

Ephesus

Ephesus

In addition, the age of Miletus (Milas), Izmir, Foca, Bergama etc. directly linked to such important cultural and commercial centers. This strategic location, the importance of Ephesus increased in every way. Since earliest times, Crete in the west to the east of Babylon and Egypt, until the whole civilized world, the riches of the country, innovations, science, culture and art, Ephesus brought a center meets all the First Age civilizations mixed. In addition, due to the presence here at the world-famous Temple of Artemis during the First Age was considered one of the most sacred religious centers. It retained this attribute with the tomb of the Virgin Mary in the Christian era. The city of two or three thousand years before Christ, according to Strabo, the Amazons, founded by the Phoenicians or estimated. Throughout history, the Ionians, the Akas, Hittites, Lydians, Cimmerians, Medes and Persians lived in the sovereignty of a myriad of race, religion and civilization embracing the city, many times demolished, replaced, flashed, but always remained an important center of civilization.

Church of Mary

Church of Mary

After 7. century it completely disappeared as a result of Byzantine reaction and Arab looting. In the beginning of 14. century the domination has passed to Turks. Present next to the ruins of Ephesus was founded in the town of Selcuk. The world of a great civilization, together with the city of Ephesus, the earth was flooded. The first archaeological excavations and research in the ruins of Ephesus was launched by the British (British Museum), and the Austrians continued. Ephesus excavations and research, as well as the historical importance of the building values, culture, and art history revealed valuable documents. Today, the Temple of Artemis, an open-air theater, the gymnasium, the agora and the marble road, library, love house, tombs, and other remains a dazzling, awe monitored. Ancient Ephesus is an indispensable component of Turkey tourism.

SMYRNA

BC in the 4th century they were living in Anatolia under the rule of Persia. In Greece, Athens, Sparta, Korinthos wrangling between the city states because of their political and military alliance against the common enemies of the Persians, which were far from displaying. In this environment, bringing together the tribes of northern Greece, King Philip II of Macedonia, which has become a major force. BC, the Greek city states in Attica Korinthos in 388 within the framework of the Union, and this union has managed to combine his son, III. Alexandros with the decision to go to war with the Persians assumed the leadership of this war.

Smyrna

Smyrna

Philip BC This time led by the son of the murdered 336 III. Undertaken by Alexandros better known as Alexander the Great. BC Granicus, Alexander the Great in 334 entered Anatolia through the Dardanelles (Biga-Kocabaş Creek) coast for the first time after defeating the Persians reached Sardis, and then Ephesos. Between Sardis and Ephesus, Smyrna suffered during the journey itself is mute on the contemporary archaeological and epigraphic documents. However, at a later date, A.D. 2. century, Pausanias Alexander Periegesis test and based on the legend of the foundation of the city in his work Hellados seen. Pausanias’s description of the city’s founding as follows. “Philippos’s son Alexander the Great, the present city, founded because of a dream sees in sleep; Pagos Hill, hunting, return for hunting reportedly came to the front of the Temple of Nemesis where the front of the temple and its water is a source of a sycamore tree had grown up with. Sycamore tree while under Nemesis appeared to him to establish a city here and there to bring off the old town commanded the people of Smyrna. Izmir people on this Klarosa (Apollo) asked if the idea of the situation, and god sent messengers replied: Holy Meles’in Pagos’ta beyond those seats compared to the past three times, four times more than happy. “

Smyrna

Smyrna

Prophecies and heroes were important in the foundation of cities. So that these two elements in the establishment of Smyrna also be used. Union of the Ionian cities suggestion of Ephesus 13 participating as a member of the commanders of the city after the death of Alexander the Great, Antigonos Lysimakhos and then with the Kingdom of Pergamon time of the Seleucid Hill Pagos (Kadifekale) and Port (arcades) has grown to be a new city between the slope and the plains. BC Kingdom of Pergamon in 133 along with all the city under Roman rule, BC in 129 Ephesus became an important city of the State of Asia-centric. Competed with Ephesus and Pergamum for the next 400 years, all of the early Byzantine period the city became the most important city in western Anatolia. After that, the inner parts of Anatolia in the sea and the importance of bringing together until now remained an important port city.

PERGAMON                                                                                                                                                  It is the only church known precisely the placeand one of the seven churches mentioned in the Bible. This church, built in red bricks,  so Pergamum was named “Red Hall”. It was built first of Hadrian (117-138 BC) during the Serapis’s  for God. The original name is “What place, what in heaven”, meaning “Serapien” is. Later converted into a basilica.

Red Hall

Red Hall

Bergama is one of Turkey‘s most important cultural treasures. The ruins of the ancient city of Pergamon in Bergama which houses the charming town of the Aegean Sea, the centuries-long health, has been the center of culture and art.

Pergamon

Pergamon

Book the best gift given to every era. The Roman emperor Marcus Antonius the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra bored what gift he gave his fiance did not think so much. Rich library of Pergamum all the 200 thousand books offered by the queen of Egypt. Generous and extravagant, this behavior can be found in more than Antony. However, BC The first I. in the event of the century, this city of Bergama in that time is how dramatically reveals a rich culture. Which is one of Turkey‘s most important cultural treasures of Bergama (Pergamon) Standing coast, 29 kilometers east of the ruins of the ancient city of Bergama town. Residential, Bakırçay and moving him participating in the waters of the North Geyikli mountain stream at the confluence of Keszthely. Dikili fertile land extending to carry Bakırçay cotton, tobacco, grapes and olives grown in value products such as plain Bakırçay creates. On the city of Pergamon in Anatolia through the ages we see the traces of his classic study of East-West. East, Persians, Syrians, Arabs and Turks, the West from the Greeks, the Spartans and the Romans to this land. have vied to dominate. Information on the founding of the city, is not clear. However, according to the legend passed on to take the name of the city in a battle Grynos Teuthrania King of Pergamon Pergamon for help, and gives its name to one of the cities built after the victory.

Pergamon

Pergamon

However, the first records of the city the ancient writer and historian Xenophon Anabasis (The Return of the Ten Thousand) through his book. Xenophon, initiated the struggle for power against the king of Persia Prince of Artekserkses Cyrus took place near the beginning of the ten thousand-strong army from Isparta people to Mesopotamia where he fought an increasingly with Artekserkses. According to the army, supported by Xenophon in Isparta. Even though the war ended in victory over the Black Sea returned to the army of Cyrus died and Isparta. According to the information presented in this book return journey BC Xenophon in 399 Bergama in the Persian satrap of mansions and the Castle of Bergama is Asidates. After this date, the Persians of Bergama and Western civilizations is the scene of many battles and hand displacements. Then, significant turning points in BC, Alexander the Great The battle of Granicus in 334 the conquest of the castle, ruler of Thrace, Lysimachus BC 3. will here give importance to the city treasury of the state of a century, the period of Philetairos to Seleukos to establish an independent state where nearly sorted and any subsequent period of Eumenes. However, the transfer of the city’s most brilliant period of Eumenes II (197-159 BC) lived. Kingdom of Attalos bequeathed to Rome in 133 connected. Among the most important cities of the Roman province of Asia in Bergama.

SARDİS

Sardis or Sardeis, in the province of Manisa Salihli located near the town of Sardis in Lydia (Lydia), the ancient city was the capital of the state. According to the known history of Sardis money printed firstly in this place. In addition, at the time of the beginning of the famous King’s Road. Orange quartz stone for a long time been used as a gemstone which is called in Western languages ​​”sard” word, Sardis area of the stone is removed from the ancient times. Quartz stone and gold extraction are still here and still continues. Charter is available on the date of the earliest known remains of the theater tried to taken out to face the day. In addition, approximately 5 km north of the Charter “Thousand Peaks” referred to by the name of Lydia royal cemetery of about 85 graves are there. Christianity, one of the seven holy temple in the town of Sardis in western Anatolia is located in the Temple of Artemis. Historical library and a large proportion of thrones still intact and exactly the same as the majority of historical monuments to visit in the construction .Here Manisa originals are exhibited in the museum of ethnography.

Sardis Church

Sardis Church

Antique “King’s Road” which is an extension of the present-day Izmir – Ankara (D-300) towards Izmir, Ankara, in the direction of i 70 Km. left behind, depending on the district of Manisa Salihli come to the village of Mustafa. Salihli, Manisa or 72 Km, Denizli to 110 Km, Balıkesir to 144 Km. away. Brings us to the way we came up into the ancient city.

Sardis

Sardis

History of Sardis, BC, down to the year 1300 ‘will make your first visit to this time, we feel almost frozen. We, established in Western Anatolia and the capital of the State of Lydia survived, we find nearly 750 years. Anatolian civilizations is always the favorite of this precious land. Persians, falls into the hands of Alexander the Great, Seleukos, Pergamum, came under the rule of the Roman Empire. Byzantine period is a religious center, known as the Episcopal Center. Of Anatolia is the first churches built in this city. This is an important ancient church known to have been in the immediate vicinity of the Temple of Artemis.

Sardis

Sardis

The ancient city, on the road locality (Sardis), the Acropolis, the Bintepe Paktolos as the Valley of Tombs and start planning the ride. Sardis’s city center, is seen as the most important work of art, recently restored, is Turkish Bath Complex Gymnasium. MS 161 in a magnificent courtyard with columns and has been entered into the bath. MS 300 youth per well was added to a synagogue. Byzantines from the bath, synagogue and shops along the road paved in marble those years leads us to almost all its splendor. Lydia moves across the asphalt road transfer from place to place under the last remains of the agora and see the walls of the Byzantine period. Moving from the city walls were present in 215 BC, about 400 years after their stay alive as a result of a major earthquake destroyed twenty thousand people is a theater.

THYATEIRA

Lydian Empire and the Kingdom of Pergamon settled since it was the most important place. During the Roman Empire, the Byzantine period, until the city was known by this name. 7 churches established by St. Paul in western Anatolia (the first seven churches of Christianity), one of the Thyateira city. Today a part of the remains of the city of Thyateira Hill Tomb of Akhisar your position in the city center can be seen.

Thyateira

Thyateira

Thyateira has been the scene of a battle during the Roman Empire. A.D.  in 366 for the throne of the Roman legions rebelled and attacked the orders which the heir to the throne of Rome with the Kilikya commander Procopius I. Valentinus due to his brother Valens, troops have faced in Thyateira. “Thyateira War” valence forces have prevailed in history as the result of war, captured Procopius was executed.

Thyateira

Thyateira

Thyateira Akhisar ancient city located on the town, a city where history goes back to the early bronze age period. In ancient times, one of the major weaving centers Thyateira, at the crossroads of the region due to the presence of roads to the main centers, military and commercial constituted an important crossroads. People between the “Cemetery Hill” district known as the excavations from the Roman colonnaded street, and various architectural pieces and coins were found. Remains current, as well as the seven churches located in the Aegean region of the first ages of Christianity, as Thyateira is located in the Church of the scope of religious tourism is one of the important places visited.

Thyateira

Thyateira

PHILADELPHIA

St.John Church: Philadelphia is built on the acropolis of the city of Philadelphia, which is the ancient temple ruins in Toptepe plain, in the northern outskirts of Toptepe’s theater, built during the Byzantine period, and the eastern gate of the city walls and AD VI century St. Jean church, the most important works. Made on behalf of the Apostles St. Ioannes. Jean Church, in the Aegean Region is one of the 7 churches of the first ages of Christianity.

St. Jean Church

St. Jean Church

Mentioned in the Bible, and their message is sent in the Seven Churches of Revelation (Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicia and Ephesus) are considered to be early Christian churches. All three of these churches are in Anatolia (Sardis, Philadelphia and Thyatira) located in the province of Manisa and is visited as part of religious tourism. The building of the church rather than the church community, the word means.

Philadelphia

Philadelphia

The acropolis of the ancient city of Philadelphia, made on behalf of the Apostles Ioannes, in the Aegean region of the first ages of Christianity, which is one of the seven churches of St. Jean is a solid three feet from the Church. Pillars height, thickness and Connection of arches, gives the impression that once a magnificent structure.

LAODICEA

Located 6 km north of Denizli city of the ancient Laodicea, and Lycus River at a point south of geographical point of view was very convenient. The city’s name is more ancient sources “Lykos’ Laodikeia as” pass. Other ancient sources, however, the city BC. II between the years 261-263. And the city was founded by Antiochus called his wife Laodice.

Laodicea

Laodicea

Laodicea, BC. I. century, Anatolia is one of the most important and famous cities. Great works of art in the city date from this period. The Romans also gave special importance to Laodikeia and Kibyra (Gölhisar-Horzum) made ​​Conventus’ center. Quality of the Emperor Caracalla minted a series of Laodicea. The contribution of a large number of people in the city of Laodicea was monumental building. One of the famous churches of Asia, seven small presence in this city, where Christianity shows how important is AD 60 locations in the city, a very big earthquake has occurred.

Laodicea

Laodicea

The most important source of income for the city at the crossroads of the roads due to the trade. It also frequently mentioned at the beginning of the textile trade in the ancient sources of income. 6 years, the city’s other major commercial revenue excavation work has revealed that the trading in marble. Laodikya right next to the lake, feeding in the middle of Lykos Lykos River Plain, Great Menderes River in the west district of Saraykoy intermingled. Menderes River flowing meandering and sluggish, especially, has been spilled into the sea next to the raft of Miletus is very convenient for transportation.

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